Updated: June 14, 2018
If your air conditioner was installed before 2010 and you don’t know what R22 is then you should probably find out more. R22 refrigerant is a chemical that keeps the air coming from your air conditioning system cool, so it’s undoubtedly incredibly important. Most air conditioning units older than 10 years utilize an AC refrigerant called R22 that’s commonly known as Freon*, and is referred to by the EPA as HCFC-22. In this blog, we’ll use the name R22. This refrigerant was introduced in the 1950s and became the main AC refrigerant in the residential heating and cooling industry.
The Montreal Protocol
Moving ahead a few decades the world realized that R22 refrigerant was aiding in the depletion of the Earth’s ozone layer. Not cool. So, the U.S. EPA, in cooperation with other agencies and groups around the world, initiated a phase out of several ozone-depleting agents as part of an international agreement known as the Montreal Protocol. The regulation lists many HCFCs and CFCs (different types of refrigerants that deplete the ozone layer), but R22 is believed to be one of the worst offenders.
Timeline and R22 phase out progress in 2018
In 2003, the phase out of R22 production and imports commenced. By the beginning of 2010 the production and import of R22 was reduced. However, servicing current, existing equipment is still permitted as long as there is an available supply of R22. To ensure the public’s compliance with the new law, all sales of R22 must be purchased by a certified technician. Production and import of R22 will be continually reduced by law until 2020, when all production and import will be banned. Only recycled R22 refrigerant will be accessible to service existing air conditioners after 2020.
The graph above shows the EPA’s consumption allowance of R22 by percentage. The limits on R22 consumption were implemented in 2010 and follow a declining trend until 2020.
So how does this affect prices?
If you’re thinking that this sounds like a great case study for an economics professor teaching supply and demand, then you are correct. As you might assume, older air conditioners could more frequently experience leaks and need repairs. Any units that are older than 2010 are more likely to use R22, which means there’s a lot more demand for it, and a reduced supply. Prices have only gone up due to scarcity.
Remember that in order to obtain R22, you must be an EPA-certified technician. So, the typical homeowner is unable to purchase a cylinder themselves. Plus, there are some strict regulations now on how refrigerant should be reclaimed and recycled, which increases expenses. This fee is passed on to the homeowner as companies must cover the increased overhead connected to R22 repairs. There are requirements for importing, labeling, record keeping, reporting, destruction and reclaiming of R22 from existing systems.
So, how does this impact you?
The cost of R22 is considerably increasing because of the diminishing supply, and new refrigerant will no longer be available for use at all after 2020, excluding recycled quantities.
If you’re thinking, “Man, this is starting to sound expensive,” you’re correct, it is. This is why when our technicians come out to inspect your unit we check to see what refrigerant your unit uses, and lots of cases, we’ll advise an upgrade due to the increasing cost of maintaining an R22 air conditioner.
How do I know if my unit uses R22?
If you have an air conditioning system that was built before 2010, your AC will typically have R22. However, if you installed your air conditioner after January 1, 2010, then your system may not have R22. You can find the type of refrigerant your system runs on by looking at the appliance’s nameplate. This nameplate is normally found on the outdoor condenser of your central air conditioning system. If you can't find it, you can check your user’s manual. If that doesn’t work either, you can call your local Service Experts center. If you have a maintenance agreement with us, we also have your information on hand and a tech can let you know right away if your unit uses R22.
Instead of Freon, use Puron
The industry has made the switch from R22 to R410a, which you may identify by the brand name Puron. In the remainder this article, we’ll use the name R410a (although Puron is a familiar brand, there are other companies that make R410a). There are some serious benefits to switching from an R22 air conditioning unit to one that uses R410a. It has a higher safety rating and an ozone depletion rating of zero, and it performed slightly better on energy-efficiency tests than R22.
The truth about “drop-ins” is that there is no “drop-in” solution where you simply swap out the refrigerant.
You may have read about “drop-in” replacements for R22. We strongly advocate against this choice. Usually a homeowner who is uneasy about the cost of replacing their air conditioner seeks out an alternative, and this sounds like an easy solution. It typically costs the homeowner more money, and virtually always voids the manufacturer warranty. The reality about “drop-ins” is that there is no “drop-in” solution where you just swap out the refrigerant. The phrase “drop-in” is indicating retrofitting a air conditioner, which when done correctly can cost the homeowner as much, or more, money than purchasing a new unit that uses R410a. In part, this is because different refrigerants work at different pressure levels and require different parts to run, which means the technician is forced to replace the most expensive components of your system to be compatible with the new refrigerant. If this critical step is avoided, your system will quickly stop working, and you’ll be forced to install a new unit anyway.
Your manufacturer will possibly not pay for the parts to make this transition because retrofitting your AC system will likely void the warranty. It’s usually just a temporary fix, but shopping for a new upgraded AC system will probably benefit most homeowners in dependability, satisfaction, and long-term comfort.
It’s smart to discuss pricing choices with your HVAC provider if you’re worried about cost. At Service Experts Heating & Air Conditioning, we provide financing plans that make a replacement doable, and we monitor for any manufacturer and utility rebates that would make it easier to handle an unforeseen replacement. To avoid an emergency on a hot day, many of our customers choose to do a pre-emptive replacement, and replace an old unit before it quits working. If you’re considering that route as well, then you’re in good company!
If your unit was built after 2010, you’re probably safe
If your heating and air conditioning system was built after January 2010, the R22 phase out problem may not apply to you, because it’s likely that your system uses the new, approved replacement refrigerant, R410a. However, units installed after 2010 could potentially use R22, so it’s best to check with an HVAC Expert. You can always check for this and the refrigerant type by reading the nameplate on your condenser (the condenser is the outside unit).
What do I do if my air conditioner uses R22?
To review, if your HVAC equipment was produced prior to January 2010, particularly if it’s older than a decade, you have a few options:
- Shop for an upgraded, more environmentally-friendly system that uses R410a.
- Reach out to an expert to replace the parts in your current AC system to help make it compatible with an approved air conditioner refrigerant. This is not advised.
- Keep using recycled R22 and burn money like it’s the ozone layer.
To be clear, the EPA regulates the production and use of this refrigerant, but not your AC. The law doesn’t require you to replace your air conditioner. Eventually, your AC will quit running and it will need to be replaced, and only R410a units will be available to buy.
The best option is to get a new, upgraded air conditioner, particularly if your current air conditioner is already more than 10 years old. Service Experts Heating & Air Conditioning has many financing options that help make the purchase affordable, and again, we look out for rebates from HVAC manufacturers and local utilities to make it even easier. New AC equipment will also be more efficient and present you superior comfort, helping to decrease your energy costs.
You could also choose the status quo and continue using recycled R22 air conditioning refrigerant for the foreseeable future. While this sounds like a great alternative, the expense of servicing old R22 A/C systems is starting to go over several hundred dollars (easily a down payment on a new system). You may also see the prices grow as demand continues to rise on a substance that is no longer produced or widely available.
If you aren’t confident what type of AC refrigerant your air conditioning system uses, our team is here. Reach out to Service Experts Heating & Air Conditioning today and we can provide an inspection to determine if you are currently using R22 and, if so, what’s the best next step.
The good news
While making the switch to an approved AC refrigerant may stressful, it’s helping to save the ozone layer. These regulations will help protect the ozone layer in the Earth’s atmosphere, which helps block radiation from the sun and prevents serious illnesses, such as skin cancer. It’s not exaggerated to say that you, as a homeowner, are a grand part of this by replacing an old R22 unit with a newer, ozone friendly unit.
If you have any questions, please contact us for a free, in-home consultation by filling out the form below.
*Freon is a registered trademark of the DuPont Corporation